Noble gases; Any of the seven chemical elements in Group 18 (VIIIa) of the periodic table can be called a noble gas. Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), Radon (Rn), and Oganesson (Og) are some of the elements. In the periodic table, they have always been called Group 0. They have always been in Group 0 of the periodic table because, for decades after they were discovered, people thought that their atoms couldn’t bond with those of other elements. This means that their atoms couldn’t combine with those of other elements to make chemical compounds.
History of Noble Gases
In 1868, noble gases got their start in history. During an eclipse of the sun, a scientist named Pierre Jansen saw a bright yellow line. He thought it was sodium, but William Crookes found out that it was helium. Henry Cavendish was the first person to separate noble gases from other gases. He did this in 1875 when he took a sample of air and took out nitrogen and oxygen.
The gases that were left were noble gases. In 1894, John William Srutt and William Ramsay did an experiment similar to Cavendish’s with a few changes. The gas that was left over was called Argon. In 1898, Morris W. Travis and his brother Sir William Travis found neon, krypton, and xenon.
They froze a sample of air until it turned into a liquid and then evaporated the water, oxygen, nitrogen, helium, and argon to get rid of them. Friedrich Dorn found radon in 1900. He called it “niton” at the time. In 1923, the name was changed to radon. After a long time had passed, Neil Bartlett made the first compound of a noble gas. This was the next important step for the noble gases. The compound was made up of xenon and platinum hexafluoride (PtF6).
Later, scientists found more xenon compounds. Soon after, a compound of radon and krypton was found. As of now, neon and helium don’t mix together to make anything. In 2006, Russian scientists made another big step forward when they said they had made element 118, another noble gas. Particle accelerators made element 118 in 2002 and 2005. Because only three atoms were made, it is not possible to find out what their physical properties are.
When the group’s members were first found and named, they were thought to be very rare and chemically inactive, so they were given the name “rare or inert gases.” But now we know that some of these elements are very common on Earth and in the rest of the universe, so calling them rare is not accurate. In the same way, using the word “inert” has the problem that it suggests chemical passivity, which makes it sound like compounds of Group 18 can’t be made. In chemistry and alchemy, the word “noble” has always meant that metals like gold and platinum don’t react with other chemicals easily. The same is true for the group of gases we’ll talk about here.
As their atomic numbers go up, there are fewer noble gases. Besides hydrogen, helium is the most common element in the universe. All of the noble gases are found in the Earth’s atmosphere. With the exception of helium and radon, their main commercial source is air, which is liquefied and fractionally distilled to get the noble gases. Most of the helium used for business comes from natural gas wells. Most of the time, radon is made when radium compounds break down radioactively. The nuclei of radium atoms break down on their own, sending out energy and particles called alpha particles and helium nuclei. In the table, you can see some of the things that noble gases have.
Position of Noble gases in Periodic Table
Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), and Radon (Rn) are the noble gases, or inert gases, that makeup group 8A (or VIIIA) of the periodic table. Noble gases are at the very right of the table because they don’t have any unpaired electrons. In the periodic table, the elements are lined up in order of the number of unpaired electrons, from left to right, low to high, and then from high to low again.
Occurrence of Noble gases
All of the noble gases are found in the Earth’s atmosphere. With the exception of helium and radon, their main commercial source is air, which is liquefied and fractionally distilled to get the noble gases. Most of the helium used for business comes from natural gas wells. In nature, noble gases are made up of just one atom. In nature, noble gases are made up of just one atom which is why they are called Mono-atomic gases as well.
Why Noble gases are inert by nature?
They have full octets, which means they don’t have any free electrons that could be used to react or make chemical bonds. So their parts are more stable than the parts of any other group. So that things are more stable, don’t do anything. Since noble gases have full valence shells, they do not combine with other elements to make compounds. So, noble gases don’t react with other chemicals. So, noble gases are called “inert gases” because they don’t mix easily with other elements to make compounds.
In many ways, inert gases are like other non-metals. They don’t have any color or smell, and their melting and boiling points are low. Even when they are liquid, they don’t move heat or electricity very well. The melting and boiling points of the inert gases follow clear patterns, just like the other groups of the periodic table. As you go down the list, the melting and boiling points get higher. However, since the boiling point of radon is still only -62oC, they all boil at pretty low temperatures.
As you move down the group, the density of the inert gases also goes up. This is because the atoms keep getting bigger. Helium has the smallest and lightest atoms, so helium gas is less dense than air. This is important when we look at it.
Misconceptions About the Noble Gases
Even though noble gases are sometimes called “rare gases,” they aren’t that rare on Earth or in the rest of the universe. In fact, argon is the third or fourth most common gas in the atmosphere (1.3% by mass or 0.94 % by volume). Other important trace elements include neon, krypton, helium, and xenon.
People thought for a long time that noble gases didn’t react with anything and couldn’t form chemical compounds. Even though these elements don’t combine easily, molecules have been found with xenon, krypton, and radon in them. Even helium, neon, and argon take part in chemical reactions when the pressure is high.
Uses of Noble gases
- In many metallurgical processes, argon is used to create an atmosphere that is not reactive. When titanium, aluminum, stainless steel, and magnesium are welded, this atmosphere of nothingness is very important. It’s also used to make metal titanium.
- Germanium and silicon crystals, which are used in things like light bulbs, transistors, etc., contain a small amount of argon.
- Compared to other liquids, helium has the lowest temperature at which it starts to boil. It is used to get the very cold temperatures that lasers need.
- Helium is used as a cooling gas in nuclear reactors and as a flowing gas in liquid-gas chromatography. It is used in airships and helium-filled balloons.
- People use helium balloons to check the weather in a certain area. Hydrogen is cheaper than helium, but helium is more popular because it is easy to get and hydrogen burns easily. Because of safety concerns, helium is the gas of choice in airplanes.
- Divers use it to mix oxygen with nitrogen in the gas cylinders they use. Nitrogen dissolves easily in the blood, which can lead to a painful condition called the bends. Helium is slightly less likely than nitrogen to cause bends.
- Neon is used in discharge tubes, which is what gives neon lights their reddish-orange glow.
- Because they can make very bright light, xenon and krypton are used in photographic flash units. Also, it is used to make lighthouses.
- Different colors of light can be made with neon, xenon, and krypton.
- The noble gases are used to create inert atmospheres, usually for arc welding, to keep samples safe, and to stop chemical reactions from happening. The elements are used to make lamps and lasers, like neon lights and krypton headlamps. Helium is used in balloons, to cool superconducting magnets, and to fill air tanks for deep-sea diving.
- Each noble gas element is in the periodic table between the halogen elements (Group 17, whose atoms add electrons to make an octet and become negative ions) and the alkali metals (Group 1, whose atoms lose electrons to make an octet and become positive ions) (Group 1, the atoms of which lose electrons to become positive ions).
- The fact that noble gases don’t react with other chemicals is important for a number of important uses. Noble gases can’t catch fire because, for example, they don’t care about oxygen. Even though helium isn’t quite as buoyant as hydrogen, it is safer for lighter-than-air craft because it can’t catch fire. Most of the time, helium and argon, which are the least expensive noble gases, are used to make chemically inert environments for cutting, welding, and refining metals like aluminum.
- Noble gases absorb and give off electromagnetic radiation in a much simpler way than other substances. This is how discharge lamps and fluorescent lights work. If you put any noble gas under low pressure in a glass tube and run an electrical discharge through it, the gas will light up. Neon gives off the familiar orange-red color of signs, while xenon gives off a beautiful blue light.
Some properties of Noble gases
People know that they don’t react with chemicals at all. All inert gases have stable arrangements of their electrons, so they don’t form molecules easily and are mostly found as single-atom gases. The general shape of a noble gas is ns2 np6. In this topic, we’ve talked about what noble gases are and how to define them. Now, let’s talk about the properties of noble gases and their atomic number.
Helium is the first element in Group 18, and the symbol for it is He. It is the first noble gas that is the lightest, and it has the lowest boiling point. It has no color, smell, or taste and is the second lightest element. The number of helium atoms is 2. Helium isn’t dangerous in small amounts, and its electronic configuration is 1s2. So, its valence shell has a total of 2 electrons. Helium can’t turn into a solid at normal atmospheric pressure. To turn it into a solid, you have to apply 25 atmospheres of pressure at a temperature of 272 °C.
This gas makes up about 23% of the mass of the universe and is the second most common thing in the universe after hydrogen. Helium is mostly found in stars, where it is made from hydrogen through a process called nuclear fusion. This gas is used to make a nonreactive atmosphere for welding metals like aluminum, and it is also used to move rockets.
- The atomic number of Helium is 2
- The mass number of Helium is 4
- The melting point of Helium is -272 °C
- The Boiling Point of Helium is -268.9 °C
- The density of Helium is 0.178 X 10 -3 g/cm3 at 20 °C
Neon is the second element in the 18th group of chemical elements. Its symbol is Ne. The number of atoms in neon is 10. Neon is a single-atom gas that has no color. This gas is lighter than air and doesn’t have color, smell, or taste. Neon is made up of a set of atoms called HeHe 2s22p6. It is often used in fluorescent lights and signs. This gas is found in very small amounts in the atmosphere of Earth and is held inside the rocks of Earth’s crust. The universe has more of this element than the surface of Earth.
- The atomic number of Neon is 10
- The mass number of Neon is 20
- The melting point of Neon is -248.4 °C
- The Boiling Point of Neon is -246 °C
- The density of Neon is 0.9 g/L
Argon is the third chemical element with an atomic number of 18 in Group 18 of the Periodic Table. The symbol for this element is the letter Ar. It is a gas that has no color, smell, or taste. Argon’s electronic structure is NeNe3s23p6. This element has 8 electrons in its valence shell, so it doesn’t react with other things.
- The atomic number of Argon is 18
- The mass number of Argon is 39.948
- The melting point of Argon is -189.4 °C
- The Boiling Point of Argon is -185.8 °C
- The density of Argon is 1.784 g/L
Krypton is the fourth element in Group 18, and its atomic number is 36. The letter Kr stands for this element. Compared to air, it is about three times as heavy. Krypton is a monoatomic gas that has no color, smell, or taste. The way krypton’s electrons are set up is written as ArAr3d104s24p6.
- The atomic number of Argon is 36
- The mass number of Argon is 83.798
- The melting point of Argon is -157.4 °C
- The Boiling Point of Argon is -153.4 °C
- The density of Argon is 1.784 g/L
With an atomic number of 54, xenon is the fifth noble gas. Xenon is shown by the symbol “Xe.” It is 4.5 times heavier than air, It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. The word “xenon” comes from the Greek word “Xenos,” which means “weird” or “foreign.”
- The atomic number of Xenon is 54
- The mass number of Xenon is 131.293
- The melting point of Xenon is -157.4 °C
- The Boiling Point of Xenon is -108.1 °C
- The density of Xenon is 5.761 kg/m3
Radon is a sixth noble gas having an atomic number equal to 86. It is a heavy radioactive gas that is made when radium breaks down. This gas has no color and is 7.5 times as heavy as air and 100 times as heavy as hydrogen.
- The atomic Number of Radon is 86
- The mass number of Radon is 222.01
- The melting point of Radon is -71 °C
- The Boiling Point of Radon is -61.7 °C
- The density of Radon is 9.73 g/litre
What is the most inert element?
The term “inert state” refers to a situation when the oxygen content of the tank’s atmosphere has been decreased to 8% or less by volume as a result of the addition of inert gas.
Why group 18 elements are called inert gases?
Group 18 elements are non-reactive and are referred to as inert gases since their valence shells are entirely filled.
What is a noble gas simple definition?
Any of a group of rare gases with high stability and very low reaction rates, such as helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and occasionally radon. also known as an inert gas.
Which one of the noble gases is the most abundant in nature?
The noble gas whose name is Argon is the most existing gas in nature.
Why are noble gases best known?
At ambient temperatures, they are in a gaseous state. They have the lowest level of reactivity. In most cases, they don’t combine with other atoms.