- Angiosperms, usually referred to as flowering plants, make up the most significant class of land plants, with more than 300,000 species now recognized.
- They are characterized by the presence of flowers, which are the reproductive structures that produce seeds.
- Petals, sepals, stamens, and pistils are the only components that makeup flowers.
- Pollinators like bees and butterflies are drawn to petals because they are frequently scented and brilliantly colored.
- Sepals protect the developing flower bud and often resemble small leaves.
- Stamens are the male reproductive structures of the flower, producing pollen.
- Pistils are the female reproductive structures comprising the stigma, style, and ovary.
- Pollination occurs when pollen from the stamen is transferred to the pistil’s stigma, allowing fertilization to occur.
- A seed is produced as a result of fertilization, and this seed contains an embryo and a food source for the growing plant.
- Flowering plants are essential to the ecosystem because they produce food for people and animals and play a significant part in the global carbon cycle.
Definition of Flowering Plants
“Angiosperms, sometimes known as flowering plants, are a large class of plants that develop flowers to facilitate sexual reproduction. They have distinguishing characteristics, including producing seeds inside fruits and having reproductive organs inside flowers. “
Indoor Flowering Plants
Plants that bloom indoors are referred to as Indoor Flowering Plants. We can use them to brighten up our house or place of business. They can be planted in pots, containers, or hanging baskets and come in a wide variety. For Instance, African Violet, Peace Lily, Anthurium, Christmas Cactus, Kalanchoe, etc.
Fall Flowering Plants
Fall Flowering Plants bloom in the autumn, often in the Northern Hemisphere from September through November. These plants have striking colors, which range from red to purple to orange, yellow, and orange. They also frequently have tough and resilient blooms that can survive cooler temperatures. Chrysanthemums, asters, goldenrods, sedums, and ornamental grasses are typical fall flowering plants.
Red Flowering Plants
Plants that produce primarily red flowers are known as Red Flowering Plants. Popular flower colors include red, which stands for ardor, vigor, and love—for example, Roses, tulips, poppies, geraniums, carnations, dahlias, and hibiscus. Besides being used to cut flowers in floral arrangements, these plants are popular in gardens and landscapes. Any yard or indoor environment can benefit from the brilliant and stunning flash of color that red-blooming plants can bring.
White Flowering Plants
Plants that produce primarily white flowers are known as White Flowering Plants. White is a prominent floral hue that frequently represents innocence, simplicity, and purity. Common white flowering plants include hydrangeas, roses, tulips, lilies, and magnolias. In addition to being used as cut flowers in floral arrangements, white flowers are popular in gardens and landscapes.
Tropical Flowering Plants
Plants known as tropical blooming plants thrive in the tropics’ hot, muggy, and rainy conditions. They are popular because of their ornamental appeal. For instance, bougainvillea, frangipani, orchids, heirloom hibiscus, and birds of paradise. Many tropical flowering plants have medical uses as well. They are frequently produced in greenhouses or as indoor plants in more extraordinary locations since they need a lot of sunlight, warmth, and moisture to develop.
Cryptogams, or non-flowering plants, reproduce in ways other than seeds. They rely on spores or asexual reproduction because they lack blooms and seeds. Mosses, ferns, liverworts, algae, and lichens are examples. Non-flowering plants contribute significantly to the ecosystem by feeding and housing a variety of creatures and assisting in preserving the ecosystem’s equilibrium. They can be found in various environments, including marshes and deserts.
Parts of Flowering Plant
These plants consist of the following parts;
Root of Plant
The Root is the portion of the plant that grows underground and holds the plant firmly in the ground. It moves water and nutrients to the remainder of the plant by absorbing them from the soil. The plant type determines the roots’ size, shape, and structure. The roots anchor the plant in the soil, preventing it from falling over or being blown over by the wind. They also absorb the water and salts the plant needs for making food in the leaves. There are many types of roots of plant and some of the types are discussed below:
- The primary root of a plant that develops vertically downwards is called a tap root, and it is in charge of receiving water and nutrients from the soil.
- It can penetrate deeper into the soil and firmly hold the plant since it is thicker and more robust than other roots.
- The tap root system is typical in dicotyledonous plants like carrots, radishes, and beets.
- To increase the plant’s surface area for absorption, the taproot frequently divides into lateral roots that are smaller in size. These lateral roots then split into microscopic root hairs.
- The tap root of various plants can be consumed and is a significant source of nutrition for both people and animals.
- Ultimately, the taproot system is essential for a plant’s life and growth, giving them the nutrition and support they need.
- Grass, onions, and lilies are monocotyledonous plants with fibrous roots as their root system.
- Fibrous roots, which differ from taproots in that they are shallow and horizontally spread, create a dense network of tiny roots that draw moisture and nutrients from the topsoil.
- In contrast to taproots, fibrous roots have several comparable-sized roots originating from the stem’s base.
- Its root structure gives the plant stronger anchoring and reduces soil erosion.
- Fibrous roots are more resistant to environmental stressors because they may regenerate quickly after damage.
- Overall, monocotyledonous plants’ fibrous root systems evolved to meet their unique needs and are crucial to their growth and survival.
- Adventitious roots, which can develop from stems, leaves, or even other roots, grow from a component of the plant other than the primary root system.
- They may form in response to environmental stressors like drought or flooding or as a method of vegetative reproduction.
- They can give the plant more anchorage and support and make it easier to take in nutrients and water from a larger area.
- Vegetative reproduction is a process wherein adventitious roots in some plants grow into new plants.
- The size, form, and function of adventitious roots vary depending on the plant species and its environment and might be airborne or underground.
- Aerial roots sprout from a plant’s stem or branches and extend above the ground.
- Some examples of Aerial roots are mangroves, epiphytes, and orchids.
- In addition to offering structural support, aerial roots can take moisture and nutrients from the atmosphere and anchor the plant to its substrate.
- Certain aerial roots, like those of orchids, are covered in a spongy covering known as velamen, which aids in moisture absorption and guards against drying out.
- Some aerial roots, like those in mangroves, can directly take in oxygen from the atmosphere and aid the plant in surviving in wet soils.
Monstera Aerial roots
Monstera is recognized for its unusual aerial roots and large, glossy leaves. The Monstera plant’s strong, aerial, firm roots grow from the nodes of the stem and commonly droop to the ground. These roots help to support, absorb moisture and nutrients from the air, and anchor the plant to its environment, among other things. Due to the Monstera plant’s frequent usage of aerial roots for propagation, it can reproduce and generate new individuals.
- Prop roots extend downward and outward into the earth from the base of a plant’s stem or trunk, which are substantial, thick roots.
- They are frequently discovered in trees, including banyans, figs, and some types of palms.
- Prop roots are crucial in giving the plant more stability and support, especially in areas with strong winds or frequent flooding.
- Prop roots occasionally also serve as a method of vegetative propagation, enabling the plant to grow new shoots from the roots.
- Depending on the plant type and its habitat, prop roots can come in various sizes and shapes.
- Some plants, such as bulbs, corms, and tubers, contain contractile roots, which are specialized.
- To provide the plant with more stability and defense against environmental stressors like frost heaving, these roots can constrict and drag the plant more deeply into the earth.
- Often short and thick, contractile roots have a thick coating of root hairs that aid in securing the plant in the soil.
- To maintain a constant depth and shield the bulb or corm from adverse weather, the contractile roots of the plant pull the plant’s growth more profoundly into the soil.
- In general, contractile roots are a crucial adaptation that enables some plants to endure and flourish in complicated settings, adding more stability and defense against environmental stressors.
The stem carries food to all parts of the plant that need it and holds water and dissolved salts from the roots to the leaves and flowers. In addition, the stem supports and spaces out the leaves to receive sunlight and absorb carbon dioxide, which they need for photosynthesis. An upright stem also holds the flowers above the ground, helping the pollination by insects or the wind. A tall stem may help in seed dispersal later on. There are mainly two types of stems for which details are given below:
“Non-woody plants, including grasses, herbs, and annual flowers, have soft, flexible plant stalks called herbaceous stems. They may heal fast after being cut or damaged since they are made of primary tissues.“
- Herbaceous stems are typically green, indicating chlorophyll is present for photosynthesis.
- Herbaceous stems do not go through secondary growth and do not develop xylem and phloem, which are types of woody tissue.
- Herbal stems are temporary and frequently die back towards the end of the growing season.
“One of the two primary categories of plant stems and herbaceous stems is the woody stem. Contrary to herbaceous stems, woody stems are rigid, complex, and made of layers of cells that eventually form rings as the plant ages.“
- Asexual reproduction is possible in some woody plants through root sprouting, layering, and cutting.
- Secondary development in woody stems produces woody tissue like xylem and phloem that improves water and nutrient transmission.
- Woody stems often have a brown or grey appearance because of the lignin and other substances present in them.
The plant’s leaves are the primary location for photosynthesis, where sunlight is converted into energy. They usually have a flat, thin, and broad shape, and a network of veins runs through them to carry nutrients and water to the rest of the plant. Leaves come in various sizes, shapes, patterns, and colors. Usually, a petiole or leafstalk connects them to the stem. Many plants have different leaf arrangements on their branches, and some have unique leaf features like thorns or tendrils with a specific purpose.
A new stem or branch from a plant’s root system is called a shoot. It supports leaves, flowers, and fruits as it rises upwards into the light. The shoot may form lateral buds as it grows, eventually giving rise to new branches or flowers. Vascular tissue found in shoots carries nutrients and water throughout the plant. The plant type, environmental factors, and growth stage can all affect the length and thickness of the shoot.
The reproductive organ of a blooming plant is the flower. Petals, sepals, stamens, and a pistil are typically present. The petals frequently have vivid colors and fragrant scents that draw pollinators like bees and butterflies. The ovules, which can transform into seeds following fertilization, are found in the pistil, whereas the stamens produce the pollen.
Snake Plant Flower
- Sansevieria, another name for the snake plant, grows tall, erect stalks with tiny, greenish-white flowers.
- The tubular-shaped flowers have six petals that slightly droop at the tips.
- The plant’s long, sword-like leaves may conceal them as they are typically not very conspicuous.
- Despite their diminutive size and natural look, Snake plant flowers are essential to the plant’s reproductive cycle.
The outermost floral component called a sepal is usually green in hue. Before the bud opens, they enclose and safeguard it. Sepals typically resemble leaves and can vary in arrangement depending on the variety of plants. When a flower bud opens to display the petals and reproductive organs, certain plants’ sepals have fused to form a protective covering. In addition to being vividly colored, sepals can also aid in drawing pollinators to the bloom.
A flower’s petals are the typically vividly colored, leaf-like appendages that encircle and shield the reproductive organs. Depending on the plant species, they can come in various forms, sizes, and colors and are generally flat and thin. Petals’ color, aroma, and nectar can be exploited to entice pollinators like bees and butterflies. Pollinators use the patterns, stripes, or dots on some petals as guidance. Petal function may occasionally include defending the bloom from environmental stresses like wind and heat.
The male reproductive component of a flower is referred to as a stamen. Typically, it consists of an anther and a filament. The anther carries out the pollen grain production and release. The filament supports the anther. The primary function of Stamen is the pollination and fertilization process.
The female reproductive component of a flower is the pistil. It usually has three parts: the ovary, style, and stigma. The stigma is the clingy area where pollen is gathered atop the pistil. The stigma and ovary are joined by a tube-like structure called the style. The ovules are found in the ovary, and after fertilization, they transform into seeds.
The thickened base of the pistil in the flower is known as the ovary. It has one or more ovules, which can mature into seeds when pollen fertilizes it. The ovary transforms into a fruit after fertilization, preserving the seeds and assisting in their dissemination. Many plant species can have ovarian structures that vary significantly in size and shape. In the process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants, the ovary is an essential element.
A flowering plant’s mature ovary, which often has seeds inside, is known as a fruit. It emerges from the ovary following fertilization. Fruits come in various forms, dimensions, hues, and flavors. They function as a mechanism for safeguarding and spreading seeds.
The shoot consists of an upright stem, with leaves and buds. The buds on the side of the stem are called lateral buds. Small, immature shoots called lateral buds are on the sides of plant stems. When prompted by specific signals, such as pruning or injury to the main stem, they can develop into new branches or stems. As they offer more spaces for leaves and flowers to emerge, lateral buds are crucial for the growth and development of plants. Hormones and environmental cues, including light, temperature, and water availability, control the formation of lateral buds. An ideal plant shape and general health and productivity can be maintained with proper control of lateral buds.
The bud at the tip of the shoot is the terminal bud, and when it grows, it will continue the upward growth of the stem. Both the terminal and lateral buds have the potential to bloom. It is responsible for lengthening the stem and generating fresh leaves and blooms. Hormones and environmental cues like light and temperature control the growth of the terminal bud. The terminal bud of some plants may also give rise to lateral buds, which can develop into additional branches or stems. The plant’s overall shape can be shaped, and optimal growth and production can be promoted with proper control of the terminal bud.
The region of the stem from which leaves and buds arise is called a node. Given that new leaves, flowers, and branches first appear here, it is a critical location for plant growth and development. Nodes also facilitate the movement of water, nutrients, and hormones throughout the plant. The distance between nodes might change depending on the plant species and the surrounding environment. Nodes are crucial in establishing how a plant is structured overall.
The region of the stem between two nodes is the internode. It is the extended part of the stem where development and growth occur. The internode length might change depending on the plant species and the surrounding environment. Support for leaves, flowers, and other plant structures is essential from internodes. The distance between internodes can also impact the plant’s overall form and shape.
An example of Mitosis at work is a plant root?
Yes, mitosis occurs in plant root cells to promote growth and repair. Plant roots undergo mitosis, during which new cells are created and added to the root’s tip, allowing the root to expand in length and width. Damaged cells in the root tissue can also be repaired due to mitosis.
How to plant Ginger Root?
Choose a fresh ginger root from a grocery shop or garden center. To promote growth, soak the ginger root in water overnight. Ensure the ginger root is planted in a pot or garden bed, covered with soil, and situated in a warm, moist, and shaded region.
How to propagate Jage plant from stem?
Cut an upright stem from an adult jade plant. After removing the lowest leaves, let the cutting dry for a few days. Place the stem in a potting mix that drains well, water it sparingly while the roots form, and then gradually increase the watering frequency.
How to plant a Succulent Leaf?
Take a healthy leaf from a mature succulent plant and gently twist it. Over a few days, let the leaf dry in the shade so that a callus can grow over the damaged end. The leaf should be placed on top of moist soil that drains well, misted with water, and kept in a warm, sunny area until new roots and a little rosette appear.
What does the petal do in a flower?
The flower’s most noticeable and vibrant sections are often the petals, which also serve as a magnet for pollinators, including insects, birds, and bats. They aid in directing pollinators toward the flower’s reproductive components, such as the stamen and pistil while providing protection. The petals frequently wilt and fall off after pollinating the flower, allowing the fruit to grow.